Arm speed usually dictates leg speed.
Here are a few tips for improving your arm drive:
– arm drive is focused more on “down and back” vs. just “back” (incidentally, the legs should follow suite).
– the elbow angle should be between 85 to 90 degrees on the forward swing, and about 95 to 100 degrees on the back swing. 7
– if the elbow angle gets too shallow while the arm is going forward, it will lower hip rotation. If the elbow angle is too shallow on the back swing, the shoulders will come up and lower the hip, thus increasing ground contact time. If the elbow angle becomes to wide on the back swing, you might lose the elastic recoil at the shoulder by increasing the arc of travel for the arm, thus forcing the elbow to close the gap to prepare for the front swing.8
– the hands should follow the cues “‘pick’ your pocket & ‘pick’ the nose”
– the elbows should not be held too close to the body (i.e. limits hip rotation) and not too far away (i.e. causes over rotation of the hips).
– you should not try and reach too far back or too far forward with the arms, as this will reduce the elastic recoil required for propulsion from the shoulder area.
– the hands should slightly cross the mid-line of the body but not beyond it.6
– the hands should be relaxed, with either the fingers wide open or slightly together but still open.